The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Employee Performance

by  Adipere, Seiyefa
(NOU10098657)
August, 2012.

Department of Business Administration1013476_308113402657045_1651332233_n
School Business and Human Resources
National Open University of Nigeria

Abstract

This research investigates the impact of emotional intelligence on employee Performance in multinational company. Emotional competence and employee performance Questionnaire was used to gather data from a sample 25 manager 75 supervisors and 200 laborers. Emotional; intelligence, self awareness, self management, relationship management, and social awareness were identified as the independent variables and employee performance as the dependent variable. Data obtained from the research instrument was statically analysis. It was revealed that there is a positive significant relationship between emotional intelligence self awareness and employee performance. This research therefore adds a new dimension to emotional intelligence and employee performance, since no similar study has been conducted. As this research takes place in the Nigeria contact, it contributes to the arrays of finding relating to the concepts.      

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   INTRODUCTION

The dynamics of an assemblage of interacting human beings with a central coordination unit, and coupled with the furious pace of change in business today, that poses difficulty to manage relationships that sabotages business more than anything else. It is not a question of strategy that gets us into trouble, but a question of emotions. Researchers and professionals of management and human behaviour ignored this importance of emotions and the ability (intelligence) handling the emotions in life situations till such a concept of emotional intelligence were highlighted by Daniel Coleman in 1995. It is believed that learning difficulties as well as various problems of maladjustment at the workplace is due to the poorly developed emotional awareness, which when developed help people to respond to a variety of environmental situations. Emotional intelligence provides the ability to take optimal advantage of one’s innate capabilities by regulating and making use of one’s own emotions. It allows individuals to create human environments in which they can fully apply their abilities and accumulated experience (Alderman, 2001; Rippon, 2001; Sovie & Jawad, 2001; and Hagenow 2001). The term emotional intelligence (E.I) was popularized by Coleman (1995) who claimed that emotional intelligence “can be as powerful, and at times more powerful than intelligent quotient (IQ)”. Emotional intelligence was first referred to in academic literature in 1990 and defined as “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings to discriminate among then and to use. This information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). An empirical study of emotional intelligence demonstrated in the same year by Mayer, DiPaolo and Salovey (1990) posit that “aspects of emotional intelligence appear to be abilities, in the traditional sense, which can be measured”. Mayer, Salovey, Caruso and Sitarenios (2001) later refined their definition to state that emotion intelligence is “an ability to recognize the meanings emotions and their relationships, and to reason and problem-solve on the basis of them”. Penrose, Perry and Ball (2007) opined that the definition of the concept given above differs from those used by some others (e.g, Goleman 1995, 1998 Schutte, Malouff, Hall, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden and Dornhein, 1998). Nevertheless, Ciarrochi, Chan and Caputi (2000) claimed that while definitions vary, “they nevertheless tend to be complementary rather than contradictory”.

Kulkarni, Janakiram and Kumar (2009) maintained that on organization which is a complex scenario, be it public or private sector have to manage change in an effective way. And emotional intelligence plays an important role in helping the managers and employees to cope with this dynamic change in the business environment. Dalip (2001) mentioned that application of emotional intelligence supports the managers and employers to recognize and understand emotions and used emotional intelligence to manage oneself and relationship with others. According to Brackett and Mayer (2003) studies have demonstrated that people who report higher levels of emotional intelligence also report higher levels of attending to health and appearance and more positive interactions with friends and family. Similarly, Schutte, Malouff, Bobik, Coston, Greeson, Jedicka, Rhodes and Wendorf (2001) found a significant positive collation between social skills and emotional intelligence and that participant within higher emotional intelligence reported significantly greater marital satisfaction than those with lower levels. Abraham (2000) found that more emotionally intelligent employees had higher levels of job satisfaction and greater commitment to their organizations.

Similarly, Gardner and Stough (2002) found significantly positive relationships between transformational leaderships and emotional intelligence, a significant negative correlation between emotional intelligence and laissez faire leadership but not significant relationship between emotional intelligence and transactional leadership. This study (Gardner & Stouch, 2002) provides some empirical evidence to support Goleman, Boyzatis and Mckee( 2001) contention that a leader’s emotional intelligence affects others in an organization and impacts on results. During the past decade management texts claim that emotional intelligence influence on performance and productivity. Also his emotional intelligence affect in all aspects of management (Jordan, Ashkanasy, Hartel & Hooper, 2002). Today, new findings show more attention to emotional intelligence on the job functions (Langhorn, 2004), this result has led managers more attention to emotional intelligence for selection and hiring for jobs that require social interaction (Robbins 2003).

Recently studies have shown great researchers’ interest in the study of the relationship between emotional intelligence and stress in the light of organizational performance stress is seen as the destructive physical mental and emotional reaction that transpires when there is a poor match between job demands and competencies or employees’ resources to manage with job pressure. Stress is a condition shared by suffering physical, mental, psychological or social problem that comes from individual feeding that doesn’t be able to respond due to one expected situations. The basic root cause of stress in an organization, is when employees face difficulties and changes in his daily working routine but always avoid and this condition creates stress, anxiety, fears, worries, tension etc. (Akinboye, Akinboye & Adeyemo, 2002). Several studies investigated the impact of emotional intelligence competencies on employee performance, and reported the existence of positive relationship (Gardner, 2005; Spector & Goh, 2001; Ciarrochi, Chan & Bajgar, 2001). The emotional competences play a role to create the abilities in an individual’s to better control the stress in the workplace. Emotional intelligence competencies generate the skill in individual to choose various courses of action to deal with stress without collapsing, to be positive to solve a problem and feel that one can control the situation (Slaski & Cartwright, 2002).

Emotional intelligent individuals appear to properly handle the negative feelings in way to express it positively allowing people to interact and work together without friction to meet their targets. This ability facilitates the individual to notice timely and redirect their unconstructive stressful relations, emotions and impulses. It is the ability to deter and to think about their reactions to events before starting work. An emotional intelligent individual is a consistent and dedicated employees; often to everything new, even in the most uncertain prospects and sodden changes such as people tend to perceive as a new opportunities rather than as a threat to personal safety and intelligent individual can keep the strike in the worst circumstances, never surrender and don’t fall into panic but react carefully (Goleman, 1998). These competencies may give assistance to construction employees to deal with effectively.

The employees having emotional competencies manage their negative emotions in the workplace and report fewer psychological problems with high levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Gardner, 2005)., bar-on (2003) posit from the investigation carried out by Brown, Kirkealdy and Thome, on the impact of emotional intelligence on police officers and health-care professionals, that police officers have high emotional intelligence respond to stress with better coping strategies and report less depression comparatively than health-care professionals having low emotional intelligence.

In another study of American and Australia college students show that students with high emotional intelligence level, report fewer physical symptoms, less social anxieties and depression. They have self-steem and interpersonal satisfaction and use active coping strategies to deal with their psychological problems (Salovey, Stroud, Woolery & Epel 2002, Ciarrochi, Deane & Anderson, 2002). Emotional intelligence is conceptually relevant for predicting employees’ work performance because organizations require interpersonal interactions to accomplish goals, and because most jobs require the ability to manage emotions. Thus, it is perhaps not surprising that studiesresearch has established a relationship between emotional intelligence and work performance (Cote & Miners, 2006; Goleman, 1995; Lain & Kirby, 2002; Semader, Robins & Ferris, 2006).

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The concept of emotional intelligence has emerged as an important but still relatively understudies element of competence (Ashkanasy & Daus, 2005; Giardini & Frese, 2006). Emotional intelligence (EI) which refers to abilities concerning recognition and regulation of emotions in self and others, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions (Giardini & Frese, 2008; Mayer, Salovey & Caruso, 2008). Few topics in the organizational behaviour and psychology have been as controversial as emotional intelligence. However, the exaggeration claims of the importance of emotional intelligence in job performance, leadership and other areas of organizational life have also helped to propel the necessity of this study.

It is imperative that with emotional intelligence, employees can handle their emotions accurately and use certain behaviours in the workplace that allow them to gather better information, grip others’ behaviours or make better decisions about their activities, that result in better performance on the job (Kim, Cable, Kim & Wang, 2009).

Although past research has established linkages between emotional intelligence and employee performance in developed countries and some developing countries (Shahzed, Sarmad, Abbas & Khan, 2011; and Kulkarni, Janakiram & Kumar, 2009), but little or none is known about emotional intelligence on employees performance in Nigeria. The oil and gas sector in Nigeria is the mainstay of the economy as such, construction companies in this sector is highly competitive any phenomenon that can contribute to performance of employees is very crucial to study in such times.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

        The aims and objective of the study are:

(1)    To investigate the impact of emotional intelligence on     employees performance?

(2)    To identify the components of emotional intelligence and their correlation with employees performance.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is the relationship between self awareness and employee performance?
  2. What is the relationship between self management and employee performance?
  3. What is the relationship between relationship management and employee performance?
  4. What is the relationship between social awareness and employee performance?
  5. What is the relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance?

1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the researchers.

(1) HO1: There is no significant relationship between self awareness and employee performance.

(2) H02: There is no significant relationship between self management and employee performance.

(3)   H03: There is no significant relationship between relationship management and employee performance.

(4) H04: There is no significant relationship between social awareness and employee performance.

(5)   HO5: There is no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and employee  performance.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Employee performance is the bedrock for organizational goals achievement. Then catalytic dimension of employee performance in attaining organizational goals cannot be overemphasized. Many factors are believed to have influenced employee performance but the emotion of the employee seems to be the major factor. Hence the study of impact of emotional intelligence on employee performance has itself expressed significance, as it seeks to establish whether any significant relationship exists between the dependent variable (employee performance) and the independent variables (components of emotional intelligence).

It is imperative that this study will provide very useful information for academies, human resource managers, industrial psychologists public/private organizations.

One outstanding role of any academic/educational research is to extend the frontiers of knowledge. It is the researchers’ conviction that the findings, results, discussions and recommendations will help enhance the available knowledge intelligence on employee performance. It will even lead to further investigations by other scholars on other dimension of this variable, therefore forming a basis for reference in the future.

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is on the impact of emotional intelligence on employees’ performance. The study focuses on the influence of the components of emotional intelligence (self awareness, self management, social awareness and relationship management) on employee performance.

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Employee: This is a person, company or organization that is paid to work for some body.

Emotional Stability: This is the psychological consultancy of mood.

Performance : This is the ability to do the job and role perception in order to achieve a particular goal.

Productivity: The oxford advance learner dictionary defines productivity as efficiency, especially in industry, measured by comparing the amount of goods or services produced with the time or resources used to produce. It can always be seen as the ratio to measure how well an organization (or individual, industry, country) convents input resources (labour, materials, machines, etc) into goods and services.

Building Bonds: This is the nurturing of instrumental relationships people with this competence; cultivates and maintain extensive informal networks; seeks out relationships that are mutually beneficial build rapport and keep others in the loop; and make and maintain personal friendships among work associates.

Self Confidence: This is the sureness about one’s self-work and capabilities. People with self-confidence and decisiveness are able to make sound decisions despite uncertainties and pressure. They can voice views that are unpopular and go out on a limb for what is right.

Self Control: This is one’s ability to manage descriptive emotions and impulses people with self-control managers their impulses, feelings and distressing emotion well. They stay composed, positive, and unflappable even in trying moments. They think clearly and stay focused under pressure.

Conscientiousness: This is taking responsibility for personal performance. People with this competence: meets commitments and keep promises; hold them accountable for meeting their objectives; and are organized and careful in their work.

Empathy: This is the ability to sense others feelings and perspective, and taking an active interest in their concerns. Empathic people are affective to emotional cues and listen well. They show sensitivity and understand others’ perspectives. They help out based on understanding other people’s needs and feelings.

                                          CHAPTER TWO
                                          LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE

Performance refers to as the results or impact of activities of an individual over a given period of time. Managing employee performance is necessary for achieving goals that an organization has for itself. Assessing an employee competency and measuring his productivity is essential in the overall plan of the organization. Pacing itself production wise is important and that cannot be done if the employee potential and ability to prefer are not measured. An employee performance is directly related to organizational productivity and its success. Better performances of each employee crates immense outcomes which mainly include consequences among employees, quality production and commitment at work place.

Employee performance is mainly managed by using formal process that is supervisor rating, management by objectives, 360 appraisals, and peers evaluation etc. to ensure that employees have been contributing towards their own and company’s development. In view of efficient performance relationship between feedback from supervisor, task identity and significance is very crucial. (Morrison, 1993), while Ashford and Black (1996), found that supervisory, association development positively influenced job performance. For attaining outstanding performance emotional competence which is a “learned capability based on emotional intelligence” is equally important (Golemen, 1998). This shows that apart from having technical skills and abilities employee need to have strong interpersonal and intra-personal competence to become a star performer.

2.2   EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

According to the literature, there are several definitions of what emotional intelligence is and what the concept actually encompassed. Some of these definitions of the concept of emotional intelligence lack sufficient research evidence to properly substantiate their views (palmer and Jansen, 2004). Goleman (1997 in Dulewicz and Higgs, 2000: 342) provides a useful definition of the concept, and believes that emotional intelligence is about:

  • Knowing what you are feeling and being able to handle those feelings without having them swamp you,
  • Being able to motivate yourself to get jobs done, being creative and perform at your peak; and
  • Sensing what others are feeling, and handling relationships effectively.

A more cases definition is put forward by Martinez (1997:72) that describes emotional intelligence as being “an array of non-cognitive skills, capabilities and competencies that influence a person’s ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures”. What this is suggesting is that emotional intelligence, unlike some other traditional concepts of intelligence, is not believed to be solely cognitive, but rather encompasses skills that assist one in coping with day-to-day living in the world. Meanwhile, Goleman (1996, 1997) cautioned that, this does not however mean that we must disagreed traditional ideas of intelligence, as these are also relevant to the individual’s daily living skills and work performance. Rather, we should look at both traditional concepts of intelligence as well as concepts of emotional intelligence.

According to Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2000) emotional intelligence includes “the ability to perceive, appraise and express emotion accurately and adaptively; the ability to understand emotion and emotion knowledge; the ability to accepts and generate feeling where they facilitate cognitive activities and adaptive action; and the ability to negotiate emotions in oneself and others”. In addition, Faluner and Janse (2004) connotatively spotted emotionally intelligent person as one who is able to process emotion laden information and then to use this information in cognitive task and other required behaviours. It is also believed that emotional intelligence allows the person other ways of being and behaving as compared to those emphasized by traditional ideas of intelligence. It is thus possible for the person to develop these alternative ways of being in order to become more effective and efficient in both day-to-day living and in the workplace (Van Joarsveld, 2003).

It is obvious that emotions have an impact on everything that people do. On the one hand, emotions can lead to an increased morale amongst employees, but on the other hand, emotions can also prove to be destructive. Negative emotions, such as fear; anxiety; anger and hostility, use up much of the individual’s energy, and lower morale, which in turn leads to absenteeism and apathy (Bagshaw, 2000). According to Klauser (1997) an individual’s emotional intelligence can be seen to dictate interpersonal relationships. Despite this, many employees in the workplace would rather steer away from dealing with emotional issues. Cooper (1997) revealed that emotions that are properly managed can, and do, have successful outcomes. Carefully managed emotions can drive trust, loyalty and commitment as well as increase productivity, innovation and accomplishment in the individual, team and organizational sphere (Cooper, 1997).

Several authors (Cooper and Sawaf, 1997; Salovey and Sluyter, 1997; Goleman, 1998) suggest that emotional intelligence is essential for effective leadership. It is believed that even if one has the best training in the world, as well as a “high intelligence” level without emotional intelligence, the person would still not make a good leader. It should however be noted that although intelligence quotient (1Q) and emotional intelligence are two separate constructs. They do work in combination as such; there are two cone proportions that can be put forward, namely:

  • A combination of 1Q and emotional intelligence explains more variation in outcome criteria than 1Q alone; and
  • A certain threshold 1Q is necessary before the combination with emotional intelligence leads to differentiated success in outcome (Dulewicz and Higgs, 2000).

There is an emerging view that emotional intelligence can be seen to be more important than traditional constructions of 1Q. studies conducted by Goleman (1998) have shown that emotional intelligences is far more important at all levels in the workplace than technical skills and 1Q studies show that emotional intelligence facilities individual adaptation and change (Quy, 1999:352), other research by Schutte et al, (1998) shows that emotional intelligence is associated with effective outcomes such as greater optimism, less depression and less impulsivity. Emotional intelligence has been found to be positively linked to task mastery and life satisfaction and negatively linked to symptoms of depression (Martiruzpons, 1997).

There is little research that has been done on success and performance in an organization context, but that which has been done rigorously demonstrates the impact of emotional intelligence on success and performances in the organizational context. Kelley and Caplan’s (1993) study at Bell Laboratories provides support for the ability of emotional intelligence to different between high and average performers in the workplace (Dulewicz and Higgs, 2000).

There has been an increase in the exploration emotional intelligence and its potential benefits for both the individual and the organization. Downing (1997) points out that there has been a greater interest in emotions and that this is due to the increasing volatility and changes that happen in the organizational setting, and that these changes are frequently associated with emotions. It is for this reason that is becoming increasingly important to explore emotions and emotional intelligence in the workplace. Cooper (1997:31) quoted the former leader of an executive team at the Ford Motor Company, Nick Zenuik, as saying “emotional intelligence is the hidden competitive advantage. If you take care of the soft stuff the hard stuff takes care of itself. This sentiment has been shared in studied conducted by authors such as Goleman (1996:1997), Marinez (1997) and Harrison (1997).

2.3   THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Various theories have been developed over the years on the topic of emotional intelligence. This section seeks to outline the development and progress of these various theories, as well as some of the measuring instruments that have been developed as a result of these theories. The concept of emotional intelligence is not new one. It has been suggested that it was Aristotle who was the first to mention the importance of emotions in human interaction (Langley, 2000), “as Aristotle put it, those who poses the rare skill to be angry wit the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way were at an advantage in any domain of life” (Goleman 1996, in Langley, 2000:177). But perhaps the first real theory of emotional intelligence came from the writings of Thorndike (1920), who betrayed that there were different types of intelligence. He named the type of intelligence using 10 tests, abstract intelligence. The type of intelligence that is used in understanding and manipulating objects and shapes, he named concrete intelligences. The third type of intelligence that Thorndale identified was social intelligence. He disposed it as “the ability to understand and relate to people” (Bagshaw, 2000:63). This third type of intelligence is what is today known as emotional intelligence.

The research done by Thorndike (1920) into social intelligence as a means of explanatory variations in outcome measures not accounted for by 1Q test was revived by the researcher. Howard Gardner (1983), when he suggested that there were seven types of intelligence. Although Gardner did not refer to emotional intelligence as such, has reference to intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence has been used by many as a foundation in developing more recent models of emotional intelligence.  Fiardner’s (1983) concept makes reference to the fact that people have the ability to know and understand their emotional as well as other individual’s emotions and intentions, which is believed to guide one’s behaviour. This was further developed by Gardner and Hatch (1989), where they developed the idea of multiple intelligences, which were different from that of 1Q (Dulewicz and Higgs, 2000).

The term “emotional intelligence” was however first coined in 1990 by two psychologists, Peter Salovey and John Mayer. Salovey and Mayer (1990) carried out extensive and comprehensive tests in order to establish emotional intelligence as a genuine intelligence based on the concept and definition of intelligence (Langely, 2000). The work that was done by Salovey and Mayer (1990) advocated that intellect and emotional intelligence were two different constructs and that they used different parts of the brain. This team of researchers managed to develop a norm-tested EQ scale. They suggest that emotional intelligence is made of four branches: managing and regulating emotion, understanding and reasoning about emotion, assimilating basic emotional experiences, and perceiving and appraising emotions.

The ‘ability model’ was developed by Salovey and Mayer during the 1990s, and has been said to be the most theoretically well clarified model (Palmer, et al, 2001). In this mode emotional intelligence I conceptualized in the traditional sense, where it is conceptually related to set of mental abilities to do with emotions and the processing of that emotional information. Mayer and Salovey have fully operationalised emotional intelligence according to a four-branch hierarchical model from basic psychological processes to higher more psychologically integrated processes. These four core abilities of the model are further operationalised to include four specific skills related to each forming of H x 4 or 16 ability-based model of emotional intelligence” Palmer, et al, 2001:6).

The instrument that was developed from the ‘ability model” of emotional intelligence is the multifactor emotional intelligence scale (MEIS) (Mayer, Caruso and Salovey, 1998). The MEIS test the individual’s ability, and yields a total emotional intelligence score as well as scores for each of the four branches of emotional intelligence 9as mentioned above). The test includes a series of 12 tasks that are designed to assess the person’s ability to perceive, assimilate, understand, and manage emotion (Mayer, et al 1998). A newer version of this instrument was released in 2000, called the MSCEIT (the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test), and according to its developers (Mayer, et al, 2000) will yield the same type of score as the MEIS.

Following on from Salovey and Mayer’s work on emotional intelligence, Daniel Hoteman’s (1995) book emotional intelligence builds on the work done by Gardner (1983) and Salovey and Mayer (1990) Goleman (in Rozell, Pettijohn, Parker, 2002:273-274) outlined five competencies that are associated with emotional intelligences: self-awareness: self-regulation, self-motivational social awareness (empathy); and social skill (relationship management). Goleman (1995) suggest that five components of emotional intelligence can have a great impact on the individual’s perception and reaction to organizational events.

According to Goleman, self-awareness is the cornerstone of emotional intelligence, and he defines the self-awareness as “knowing one’s internal states, preferences, resources, and intuitions” (Goleman, 1996 in Rozell et al, 2002:274). This is important to psychological insight and self-understanding.

Emotional management or self-regulation is the second of Goleman’s core competencies, and this enables the individual to manage his own internal states, impulses and controls. Self-regulation also involves self-monitoring, which allows the individual to adjust his behaviour according to external situation factors. The element of self-regulation includes aspects such as trustworthiness; self-control; consciousness; adaptability and innovation (Goleman, 1995).

The third core competency that goleman includes in his theory of emotional intelligence is that of self-motivation. Self-motivation involves the control of emotional tendencies that facilitates reaching one’s goals (Goleman, 1995). There are several key elements that assist in self-motivation: achievement drive; commitment; initiative and optimism. Optimism in itself is believed to be a key pillar in self-regulation and has been thought to be a key determinate of motivation and performance outcomes (Rozell, et al 2002).

The fourth core competency that Goleman outlined in his work on emotional intelligence is that of social awareness or empathy, which an awareness of other people’s feelings is. This concept of social awareness has been labeled by several authors as being crucial components of emotional intelligence (Goleman, 1995). “Empathy involves understanding others, developing others, having a services orientation, leveraging diversity, and possessing a keen political awareness” (Rozell et al 2002:295).

Lastly, social skills are the fifth competency that Goleman outlined with regard to emotional intelligence. This skill involves adeptness at handling interpersonal relationships. Goleman (1995:1998) believes that social skills involves influencing tact is effective communication; conflict management skills; leadership abilities; change management skill; instrumental relationship abilities; and effective team membership capabilities.

Goleman suggests that these traits are actually routine human characteristics, and that they not necessarily committed with status or hierarchy (Diasecka, 2000). These traits are human qualities that every person has access to, and it is merely a case of developing these skills and thus developing and increasing emotional intelligence. Goleman (1995) developed the 137-item emotional quotient (EQ) test, which effectively measures the first dimensions of emotional intelligence. It is seen to be one of the most comprehensive measures available and has a scale that can be used in a variety of contexts (Coleman 1995).

Another model of emotional intelligence has been developed by Bar-on. He defined his non-cognitive model of emotional intelligence as “an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competitiveness and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures” (Barr-On 1997;14). While this model falls under the broad banner of emotional intelligence it also fits into the broader construct of emotional and social intelligence. Bar-On (1997) has used 15 conceptual constricts in the operationalization of this model, and these all pertain to five specific dimensions of emotional and social intelligence. These are:

  • Intra-personal emotional intelligence-reprisentory abilities, capabilities, competencies and skills pertaining to the inner self.
  • Interpersonal emotional intelligence representing interpersonal skills and functioning.
  • Adaptability emotional intelligence-representing how successfully one is able to cope with environmental demands by effectively sizing up and dealing with problematic situations;
  • Stress management emotional intelligence-concerning the ability to manage and cope effectively with stress;
  • General mood emotional intelligence-pertaining to the ability to enjoy life and to maintain a positive disposition (Gardner and Stough, 2002).

According to Bar-On (1997) these components develop over time, and it is also possible that they change through one’s lifetime and that they can be improved through training. Bar-On’s model of motivational intelligence is about the potential for performance rather than performed itself (Gardner and Stough, 2002). From the above mentioned model, Bar-On (2000) developed the self-reporting emotional intelligence inventory, a 133-item questionnaire with a five point rating scale. From these items, five subscales are generated: intrapersonal; interpersonal; adaptability; stress management and mood.

Recently, Wolmarans (2001) identified survival constituent competencies of emotional intelligence that were used to develop the ECP to measure emotional intelligence. This particular model of emotional competence is particularly relevant to this research study as it was developed for use in the South African context, and is a statistically validated emotional intelligence assessment fund (Palner, Janson and Coetzee, 2005). According to Theron and Roodt (2001), a multi-rater assessment provides the individual (rates) with holistic feedback, which is seen to facilitate personal growth. Wdmcnans (2001) believes that the purpose of the ECP is to allow the individual to look at:

  • Emotional skills in a “mirror” through his own eyes;
  • Behaviour through the eyes of other people, as indicated by the ratings of others; and
  • Strengths and development areas.

The competences measured by the ECP are based on a content analysis of current leadership competency requirements as outlined by various authors and service providers (Wolmarans, 1998). The ECP divides emotional intelligence into seven constituent competencies or clusters: self-esteem (and self-regard); self-management change resilience; interpersonal relations; integration of head and heart; and emotional literacy (Wolmarans and Marins, 2001).

Self-motivation refers to the ability to create a challenging vision and set goals, and is also the ability to remain focused and optimistic despite any setbacks that may occur in obtaining set goals. Self-motivation means taking action everyday and remaining committed to a particular cause. Finally, self-motivation requires taking responsibility for one’s successes and failure (Wolmarans and Martins, 2001).

Self-esteem refers to “an honest, objective and realistic assessment of, and respect for, one’s own work as an equal human being” (Palmer, et al 2005:10). Having self-esteem includes unconditional, non-defensive acceptance of one’s talents, values, skills and short-comings. According to Wolmarans and Martins (2001), a high self-esteem is  stated as the ability to have the courage to stand by one’s values in the face of opposition, as well as the ability to admit to mistakes in public and even possibly laugh at oneself, if and when appropriate.

Self-management refers to the ability to manage stress and harass energy in order to create wellness and a healthy balance between body, mind and soul, without neglecting one in order to gratify another. The concept of self management is displayed through the ability to remain clam during conflict and provocation situations, while at the same time keeping defensiveness to a minimum and ultimately restoring rationality with the aggravated party (Wolmarans and Martins, 2001).

Change residence indicates that one is able to remain flexible and open to new ideas and people encouraging the necessity for change and improvement, but taking into account the emotional impact that this change may have on other individuals. “An advanced level of change resilience is demonstrated by an ability to cope with ambiguity to thrive on chaos, without forcing premature closure, and to get re-energized by the beautiful scenes encountered along the way, as well as the anticipation of the unknown” (Wolmarans and Martins, 2001 in Palmer, et al 2005:1).

Interpersonal relations are characterized by an intuitive understanding of, and a deep level of caring and compassion for people. This means one needs to have a real concern for other people’s well-being, growth and development, as well as taking pleasure in and recognizing their success. Interpersonal relations involve motivating others by setting high expectations and willing them to commit to a cause. It also includes the ability to be a team leader as well as team contributor in order to achieve set goals. A high level of interpersonal relations is demonstrated through the ability to comment with others on an emotional level and by being able to build trust and loyalty in order to sustain long-term relationships (Wolmarans and Martins 2001).

The integration of head and heart is the ability to access the functions of both sides of the brain. This involves using one’s head and one’s heart-or the facts as well as feelings and emotions in order to make decisions and solve problems. An ability to turn adversity into opportunity and make intuitive and implemental breakthroughs during moments of crisis demonstrates on advanced integration of ‘head and heart’ (Wolmarans and Martins, 2001).

Finally, emotional literacy is characterized by an awareness of the variability of one’s own and others emotions. It also involves having knowledge what causes these emotions, and then ability to interact with others on an emotional level in an appropriate way. The ability and willingness to acknowledge and apologize for any emotional distress caused. And to be able to express sincere regret and restore damaged relationship.

 2.4          CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

2.4.1        SELF AWARENESS

This component of emotional intelligence reflects the importance of recognizing one’s feelings and how they affect one’s performance. Self awareness is key to realizing one’s strengths and weakness. Among several hundred manages from twelve different organizations. Accurate self-assessment was the hallmark of superior performance (Boyatzis, 1982 in Shahzad et al, 2011) individuals with accurate self-awareness was the competence found in virtually every “star performer” in a study of several hundred knowledge workers (Kelley, 1998) self awareness stimulates self confidence competence. The level of self-confidence was in fact a stronger predictor of performance than the level skill. In a sixty year study of more than one thousand high-IQ men and women tracked from early childhood to retirement, those who possessed self-confidence during their early years were most successful in their careers (Holahan and Seers, 1995).

The positive impact of the self-confidence competence on performance has been shown in a variety of studies. Among supervisors, mangers, and executives, a high degree of self-confidence distinguishes the best from the average performers (Boyatzis, 1982; in Goleman, 2000) among 112 entry-level accountants, those with the highest sense of self-efficacy, a form of self-confidence were rated by their supervisors ten months later as having supervisor job performance. The level of self-confidence was in fact a stronger predictor of performance than the level of skill or previous training (Saks, 1995 in Golaman, 2000).

2.4.2   SELF MANAGEMENT

This component of emotional intelligence enables the individual to manage his/her own internal states, impulses, and controls. Self-management or self regulation also encompasses self monitoring which allows the individual to adjust his behaviour according to external, situational factors. It’s an ongoing process which directly affects the performance of employees. According to Coleman, (1995) the elements of self management includes aspects as self-control; trustworthiness; conscientiousness; adaptability and innovativeness. Rahim et al (2002), opined that facing job stress with strong sense of control over one’s own beliefs promote to manage anger and depression at workplace. Controlling anger and depression at workplace serves as a strong tool for better performance. Accurate self management creates trustworthiness which let others to know one’s values and principles. Trustworthy employees maintain standards of honesty and integrity which makes them forthright about the blenders and tackle others about their lapsed. A scarcity in this ability operates as a career derailed due to below average performance at workplace (Goleman, 1998). It is premised that self management is characterized by conscientiousness. To Barrack and Mount (1991), being conscientious include self discipline in attending to various responsibilities which creates outstanding performance right from the bottom to top. Adaptability which is one of the characteristic elements of self management according to Spencer and Spencer, (1993), superior performers demonstrated this competence at work place and create immense results. Self management creates emotional resilience which enables employees to think “out of the box”. Businesses with autonomous and flexible roles and regulations provide a platform for innovation which result in efficient performance of employees (Amabile, 1988, in Shahzad et al 2011). Employees with the competence of self management are achievement driven: they are striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence; they are results oriented with high drive to meet their objectives and standards; the set challenging goals and take calculated risks; pursue information to reduce uncertainty and find way to do better, and learn how to improve their performance.

2.4.3   SOCIAL AWARENESS

This component of emotional intelligence enable individual to read people and groups accurately. It is characterized with three competencies: the empathy competence gives people an astute awareness of others’ emotions, concerns, and needs.

The empathic individual can read emotional currents, picking up on nonverbal cues such as tone of voice or facial expression. This sensitivity to others is crucial for superior job performance whenever the focus is on interactions with people. Physicians who are better at recognizing emotions in patients are more successful than their less sensitive colleagues at treating them (Friedman & Dimatteo, 1982, in Goleman, 2000). Skill in empathy correlates with effective sales, as was found in a study among large and small retailers (Pilling & Eroglu, 1994). In an increasing diverse workforce, the empathy competence allows us to read people accurately and avoid resorting to the stereotyping than can lead to performance deficits by creating anxiety in the stereotyped individuals (Steele, 1997).

The ability to identify clients or customer’s need and concerns, and then match than to products or services is crucial in servicing industry like Daewoo. Social awareness plays a significant role in developing service competence superior performance mainly in servicing industry have the ability to recognize customer’s view point and utilize appropriate assertiveness to guide the customer toward a performance that best satisfies both customer’s and company’s/vendor’s need (McBane, 1995).

Socially awareness employees have the ability to understand the overall psyche of organization and political realities in groups. This ability creates organizational awareness that enhance networking and coalition building which makes the individual to wield influence irrespective of their professional role. To become efficient performer, social awareness is required at organizational level apart from just at interpersonal one. Social awareness allows reading situations objectively, without any personal biases and distortions which distinguished star performers from average ones (Boyatzis, 1982 in Shahzad et al 2011).

2.4.4   RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

This component of emotional intelligence comprise set of competences which include essential social skill, analyzing and influencing others in inducing desirable responses in others. Effective relationship management helps in developing others which is a hallmark of superior manager; among sales managers as it characterize those at the higher level (Spencer & Spencer, 1993). The ability to sense others reactions and fine tone responses and be persuasive is a significant characteristic of star performer. This ability is essential for supervisors, managers, executives and for those who are managing front-line work; it has emerged as a fundamental skill for effective leadership as well (Spencer & Spencer, 1993; Goleman, 2000).

Relationship management requires clear line of communication which is a key factor in organizational success. Effective communication allows give-and-take of emotional information, better listening ability, and welcome sharing of knowledge and staying receptive for good as well as bad news. Study has shown that more people prefer to deal with those managers and executives who posses strong communication competency for relationship management (Goleman, 1998). Conflict management competence also improves relationship management. The art of empathizing is critical while handling different people and situations with diplomacy and commencing discussions. Especially in retail business effective negotiation skills which avoid conflict, indicates the health of such business (Gonesan, 1993).

Effective leadership helps to sustain relations at work place and guide the performance of others by holding them accountable. Leaders spread out the energy by exhibiting emotions which are contagious and more positive, co-operative and helpful culture prevail which represents high performance (Batchman, 1988; in Shahzad et al, 2011). The ever changing trend due to globalization has fashion up the business environment and effective change management is crucial while developing relationships in business. To make subordinates work more effective and their performance to become better, leader’s competency in catalyzing change and building relations affects a lot (House Woycke & Fodor, 1988; in Shahzad et al, 2011)

The building bonds competence epitomizes stars in fields like engineering, computer science, biotechnology, and other knowledge work fields in which networking is crucial for success; these stars tend to choose people with a particular expertise or resource to be part of their networks (Kelley, 1998). Outstanding performers with this competence balance their own critical work with carefully chosen favours building accounts of goodwill with people who may become crucial resources down the line. One of the virtues of building such relationships is the reservoir of trust and goodwill that they establish; highly effective managers are adept at cultivating these relationships, whereas less effective managers generally fail to build bonds (Kaplan, 1991).

The collaboration and teamwork competence has taken on increased importance in the last decades with the trend toward team-based work in many organizations. Teamwork itself depends on the collective emotional intelligence of its members; the most productive teams are those that exhibit emotional intelligence competencies at the team level. Collaboration is particularly crucial to the success of managers; a deficit in the ability to work cooperatively with peers was, in survey, the most common reason managers were fired (Sweeney, 1999). Team members tend to share moods, improving performance (Totterdell et al 1998). The positive mood of a team leader at work promotes worker effectiveness and retention (George & Bettenhavsen, 1990; in Gobeman, 2000). Finally, positive emotions and harmony on a top-management team predict its effectiveness (Barsade & Gibson, 1998).

2.5   EMPIRICAL LITERATURE

Rahim (2010) carried out an analytical study of Pakistan banks n emotional intelligence and stress. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of emotional intelligence competencies and stress among the bank employees who work under stressful conditions. The study used random sample of 630 employees from 23 different banks in Pakistan. The instrument used for data collection was emotional and social competency inventory (ESCI), and stress questionnaires developed by the investigator. Statistics used for data analysis were mean and multiple regressions. The study had the following findings:

  • Emotional intelligence competencies have positive and strong impact on stress.
  • Emotional intelligent managers can control the level of stress among employees.

Shahzad, Sarmad, Abbas and Khan (2011) conducted a study on the impact of emotional intelligence on employee’s performance in telecom sector of Pakistan. The objective of the study was to explore the underling mechanism that links emotional intelligence employee performance at work place.

The study adopted random sample of 118 employees made up of call Centre agents, business development officers and team leaders who were focused towards customers’ orientation. The participants were drawn from five telecom companies in Pakistan. The instrument for the study was emotional intelligence and employee’s performance questionnaire. Descriptive statistics (frequency distribution), correlation matrix and regression analysis were used to analyzed data collected. The findings from the study include:

  • The correlating matrix indicates that self awareness is significantly correlated with employee’s performance but as per regression analyses; it is a weak predictor of employee’s performance.
  • Correlation matrix indicates a significant relationship between social awareness and employee’s performance, and it is a strong determinant of employee’s performance with regression analysis.
  • Relationship management is significantly correlated with employee’s performance, and it is a strong determinant of employee’s performance.

Kulkanni, Janakiram and Kumar (2009) investigated emotional intelligence and employee performance as an indicator for promotion in automobile industry in the city of Belgaum, Karnataka, India. The objectives of the study were (i) to understand the level of performance of the managers and supervisors, (ii) to understand the level of emotional intelligence of managers (iii) to study one impact of emotional intelligence on the level of performance and their ability to take higher level of jobs I the organization. The researcher adopted random sample of 125 employees made up of managers and supervisors working in the automobile retailer. The instrument used for data collection was emotional intelligence questionnaire. The data collected for the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and correlation. The findings from the study are as follows:

  • The managers and supervisors show lower level of performance in the organization;
  • The managers show lower level of emotional intelligence in key areas that is achievement driven, team building, flexibility and adaptability which are factors very much crucial for the job. The supervisors show a lower level of emotional intelligence on the job.
  • The managers and supervisors are not able to meet the expected level of performance on the job as they are not able to manage their emotions.

Hayward (2005) investigated the relationship between employee performance, leadership and emotional intelligence in a South African parastaltals organization. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between employee performance, leadership and emotional intelligence. The study used random sample of 960 employees comprising 160 leaders and 800 supervisors. The instruments for the study were emotional competency profiler (ECP), multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ) and parastaltals performance appraisal process. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics, regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings of the studies are as follows:

  • There exist linear relationship between employee performance and an emotional intelligent transactional leader.
  • A significant linear relationship does not exist between employee performance and an emotionally intelligent, transformational leader.
  • There exist relatively weak, but significant, positive linear relationship between emotional intelligence and transactional leadership.
  • There is a very significant positive linear relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership.

                                          CHAPTER THREE
                                       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1   RESEARCH DESIGN

The research design adopted for the study is correlation research design. This research design seeks to establish what relationship exists between two or more variables. Correlation research design usually indicates the direction and magnitude of the relationship between variables. Correlation studies attempt to trace the connection or association between different phenomena so as to provide a deeper insight into problems. This study seeks to find or establish whether two or more variables relate.

Concerning the present study, it seeks to determine the relationship between the independent variables (Self awareness, self management, relationship management, and social awareness), and the dependent variable (employee performance).

3.2   AREA OF THE STUDY

Daewoo Engineering and construction is a brand of Daewoo group founded by Kim Woo-Jung n March 1967, in South Korea. The company is active around the world. It is one of largest construction companies in South Korea. Daewoo Engineering and construction (Daewoo E & C) provides construction, engineering, and architectural services for power, industrial, infrastructure, commercial, and residential products. Daewoo E & C’s portfolio includes gas pipeline and storage tanks in Asia, Middle East, and Africa; more than 130 domestic and international highway and bridge projects; and brand of upscale apartments, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State in Nigeria also play host to Daewoo E & C due to her numerous oil and gas deposit. At present at branch of the company carries out pipeline constructions in Yenagoa with the office situated at Oxbow take known as Daewoo E & C 58 Ogu Base. Daewoo E & C 58 Ogu Base is having about 2000 to employees.

3.3   POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The population of the study comprises employees of Daewoo construction and engineering (Daewoo 58) in Oxbow Lake, Yenagoa. This includes male and female managers, supervisors and laborers of the company. As at the time of the study, the total population is 2000.

3.4   SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE(S)

A sample of 300 employees was used for the study. It was drawn from all departments. The researcher adopted stratified random sampling technique. The sample size was made up of 25 managers, 75 supervisors and 200 labourers.

3.5   INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

The instrument for the study was emotional company and employee performance questionnaire (ECEPQ).

The instrument was a non-cognitive instrument created by the researcher. The ECEPQ was a compound instrument with five (5) sections, and a total of 30 items, six (6) items each section. The instrument was design to ascertain employee’s emotional level and performance tendency. The instrument was responded to by employees on a four point Likert scale with response format of never, sometimes, fairly always and always. All responses were quantified 1, 2, 3 and 4. Each section of the instruments had a minimum score of 6 and a maximum score of 24.

3.6   VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENT

Some copies of the instrument for the study were given to three (3) experts in Human Resource Management at different times for vetting with regard to indicating what the instrument appear to measure superficially; clarity of expression, content coverage and relevance to the area of study. They confirmed the face validity of the instrument.

3.7   RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

The reliability of the instrument for the study was determined by test-retest method. The instrument was administered to 20 employees with two weeks duration. The two sets of scores (first and second administrations) were then correlated using the Pearson Product Moment (r), the stability coefficients was .83 (self awareness, 0.76; self management, .88; relationship management, 0.92; social awareness, 0.69; and employee performance tendency 0.91).

3.8   ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENT

The instrument for the study was administered by direct delivery method (DDM) by the researcher. The copies of the instrument given to the respondents were collected back on the spot.

3.9   METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

The data for the study were subjected to statistical analysis using mean (x), standard deviation (sd) Pearson product movement correlation (r), special z-test and multiple correlation for significance. The statistical decision was made at 0.5 levels of significance.

                                        CHAPTER FOUR

4.1   DATA PRESENTATION AND RESULTS

The data and results of each research question with the corresponding hypothesis are presented on the same table since the hypotheses are derived from the research questions. Each table is followed by a summary of results.

Research Question 1: What is the relationship between self awareness and employee performance?

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between self awareness and employee performance.

Table 4.1: Relationship self awareness (VAR 00001) and employee

Performance (VAR 00005)

Variables N X SD R Zrcal Zrcrit Sign Level Chosen Alpha Result
VAR 00001 300 21.76 1.92 0.25 7.85 1.960 0.000 0.05 Significant
VAR 00005 300 22.69 1.39

Table 4.1 shows that self awareness (VAR 00001) has a mean of 21.76 and a standard deviation of 1.92; the mean and standard deviation of employee performance (VAR 00005) are 22.69 and 1.39. Table 4.1 also shows a correlation coefficient of 0.25. This means that there is a positive relationship between self awareness and employee performance. The coefficient between the two variables (0.25) is significant at .05 alpha levels for two-tailed test. The level at which this correlation is significant (0.000) is less than the chosen alpha level of 0.05. Also the calculated Z (7.85) is greater than the critical Z (1.96) at df of 298 of .05 level of significance for a two-tailed test. Thus the null hypothesis 1(H01) of no significant relationship between the two variables is rejected to accept the alternative hypothesis. Thus there is significant relationship between self awareness and employee performance. 

Research Question 2: What is the relationship between self management and employee performance?

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between self management and employee performance.

Table 4.2: Relationship between self management (VAR 00002) and employee performance (VAR 00005)

Variables N X SD R Zrcal Zrcrit Sign Level Chosen Alpha Result
VAR 00002 300 21.39 1.46 0.18 7.65 1.96 .002 .05 Significant
VAR 00005 300 22.69 1.39

Table 4.2 shows that self management (VAR 00002) has a mean of 21.89 and a standard deviation of 1.92; the mean and standard deviation at employee performance (VAR 00005) are 22.69 and 1.39. Table 4.2 also shows a correlation coefficient of 0.18. This means that there is a positive relationship between self management and employee performance. The coefficient between the two variables (0.18) is significant at .05 alpha levels for two-tailed test. The level at which this correlation is significant (0.002) is less than the chosen alpha level of .05. Also the calculated Z (7.65) is greater than the critical Z (1.96) at df 298 of .05 level of significance for two-tailed test. Thus the null hypothesis 2 of there is no significant relationship is rejected to accept the alternative hypothesis. Therefore, there is significant relationship between self management and employee performance.

Research Question 3: What is the relationship between relationship management and employee performance?

Hypothesis 3: There is no significant relationship between relationship management and employee performance.

Table 4.3:        Relationship between relationship management

(VAR 00003) and employee performance (VAR 00005)

Variables N X SD R Zrcal Zrcrit Sign Level Chosen Alpha Result
VAR 00003 300 21.84 1.46 0.195 8.14 1.96 0.001 .05 Significant
VAR 00005 300 22.69 1.39

Table 4.3 shows that relationship management (VAR 00003) has a mean of 21.84 and a standard deviation of 1.46; the mean and standard deviation of employee performance (VAR 00005) are 22.69 and 1.39. Table 4.3 also shows a correlation coefficient of 0.19. This means that there is a positive relationship between relationship management and employee performance. The coefficient between the two variables (0.19) is significant at .05 alpha levels for two-tailed test. The level at which this correlation is significant (0.001) is less than the chosen alpha level of .05. Also, the calculated Z (8.14) is greater than the critical Z (1.96) at df of 298 at .05 level of significance for a two-tailed test. Thus, the null hypothesis 3 (H03) of no significant relationship between the two variables is rejected to accept the alternative hypothesis. Thus, there is significant relationship between relationship management and employee performance.

Research Question 4: What is the relationship between social awareness and employee performance?

Hypothesis 4: There is no significant relationship between social awareness and employee performance.

Table 4.4: Relationship between social awareness (VAR 00004) and employee performance (VAR 00005)

Variables N X SD R Zrcal Zrcrit Sign Level Chosen Alpha Result
VAR 00004 300 21.86 1.50 0.41 9.12 1.96 0.000 .05 Significant
VAR 00005 300 22.69 1.39

Table 4.4 shows that social awareness (VAR 00004) has a mean of 21.86 and a standard deviation of 1.41; the mean and standard deviation of employee performance (VAR 00005) are 22.69 and 1.39 table 4.4 also show a correlation coefficient of 0.41. This means that there is a positive relationship between social awareness and employee performance. The coefficient between the two variables (0.41) is significant at .05 alpha levels for two-tailed test. The level at which this correlation is significant (0.000) is less than the chosen alpha level of .05. Also the calculated Z (9.12) is greater than the critical Z (1.96) at df of 298 of .05 level of significance for a two-tailed test. Thus, the null hypothesis 4 (H04) of no significant relationship between the two variables is rejected to accept the alternative hypothesis. Thus, there is significant relationship between social awareness and employee performance.

Research Question 5: What is the relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance?

Hypothesis 5: There is no significance relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance.

Table 4.5:        Relationship between emotional intelligence (VAR 00006) and employee performance (VAR 00005)

Variables N X SD R Zrcal Zrcrit Sign Level Chosen Alpha Result
VAR 00006 300 87.53 3.47 0.36 347.10 1.96 0.000 .05 Significant
VAR 00005 300 22.69 1.39

Table 4.5 shows that emotional intelligence (VAR 00006) has a mean of 87.53 and a standard deviation of 3.47; the mean and standard derivation of employee performance (VAR 00005) is 22.69 and 1.39. Table 4.5 also shows a correlation of coefficient of 0.36. This means that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance. The coefficient between the two variables (0.36) is significant at .05 alpha levels for two-tailed test. The level at which this correlation is significant (0.000) is less than the chosen alpha level of .05. Also, the calculated Z (347.10) at df of 298 at .05 level of significance for a two-tailed test. Thus, the null hypothesis 5 (H05) of no significant relationship between the two variables is rejected to accept the alternative hypothesis. Thus, therefore is significant relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance.

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1   DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Null Hypothesis 1:
There is no significant relationship between self awareness and employee performance. The result from table 4.1 shows that there is a positive relationship between self awareness and employee performance. The magnitude of the relationship is low. Table 4.1 shows a mean (x) and standard deviation (sd) of 21.76 and 1.92 respectively for self awareness; while employee performances mean and standard deviation are 22.69 and 1.39 for all the employees. The correlation coefficient between the two variables is 0.25. When Z statistics and multiple correlations were applied, the r-value of 0.25 was found to be significant at 0.05 level of probability. Thus, the null hypothesis 1 is rejected and the alternative hypothesis which states that there is significant relationship between self awareness and employee performance is accepted. The positive relationship between self awareness and employee performance among employees means that as scores on self awareness increases, scores on employee performance increases and vice versa. Employees who score high in self awareness will have high scores on employee’s performance, and vice versa. The findings of the study agrees with that of Shahzed et al (2011) whose study revealed that self awareness is significantly correlated with employees performance.

Null Hypothesis 2:
There is no significant relationship between self management and employee performance. The findings from table 4.2 show that there is a positive relationship between self management and employee performance. The degree of relationship appeared to be low. In table 4.2, self management had a mean and standard deviation of 21.89 and 1.46 respectively. For example performance, the mean and standard deviation are 22.69 and 1.39. The correlation revealed that the r-value of 0.18 was significant at 0.05 level of probability. Thus the null hypothesis 2 is rejected and the alternative hypothesis which states that there is significant relationship between self management and employee performance is accepted.

The positive relationship between self management and employee performance among employees implies that as scores on self management increases, there is a corresponding increase in employee performance scores, and the versa. This connotes that employees who earn high scores is self management will score high in employee performance, and vice versa. Finding by Shahzed et al (2011) is in agreement with the present study.

Null Hypothesis 3:
There is no significant relationship between relationship management and employee performance. Information in table 4.3 shows a mean and standard deviation of 21.84 and 1.46 for relationship management; and a mean of 22.69 and a standard deviation of 1.39 for employee performance respectively. The result in the same table shows that there is a positive relationship between relationship management and employee performance. The degree of the relationship is low. With the application of Z statistic and multiple correlations, the r-value of 0.19 was found to be significant at 0.05 level of probability. Thus, the null hypothesis 3 is rejected, and the alternative hypothesis which states that there is significant relationship between relationship and employee performance is accepted.  The positive relationship between relationship management and employee performance among employee connotes that as scores on relationship management increases, there is a corresponding increase in employee performance score and vice versa. This implies that employee with high scores in relationship management will have high scores in employee performance, and vice versa. The finding of the present study is in tandem with Shahzad et al (2011).

Null Hypothesis 4:
There is no significant relationship between social awareness and employee performance.The information in table 4.4 shows that social awareness has a mean of 21.86 and standard deviation of 1.50. For employee performance the mean and standard deviation are 22.69 and 1.39 respectively. A positive relationship was found between the two variables with the use of Z statistic and multiple correlations, the r-value of 0.41 was found to be significant at 0.05 alpha levels. The level at which it was significant moderate the positive relationship between social awareness and employee performance among employees means that as scores of social awareness increase, there is a corresponding increase in scores of employee performance, and vice versa. The finding of this study buttresses Shahzad et al (2011).

Null hypothesis 5:
there is no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance. In table 4.5, the result indicates that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance. Emotional intelligence has a mean and standard deviation of 87.53 and 3.47 respectively. For example performance, the mean and standard deviation are 22.69 and 1.39. The r-value of 0.36 was found between the two variables. With the application of Z statistic and multiple correlations, the r-value of 0.36 was significant at 0.05 level of probability. Thus, the null hypothesis 5 is rejected, and the alternative hypothesis which states that there is significant relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance is accepted. The positive relationship between emotional intelligence and employee performance among employees means that as employee scores of emotional intelligence increase, there is a corresponding increase in scores of employee performance and vice versa. The finding of this study supports the works of (Shahzad et al 2011, Rahim 2010 and Kulkami et al 2009).

5.2   IMPLICATION OF THE RESULTS

The findings that emotional intelligence and its components such as self awareness, self management, relationship management, and social awareness have correlation with employee performance have implications for human resources managers, supervisors, psychologists, organization managers in general. The positive relationship between emotional intelligence and its components will mean employee performance regulation. That is, the study findings can increase employee performance level.

5.2   RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the findings from this study, the following recommendations were made:

  • Human resources management of department every organization should carryout emotional intelligence development training on every employee.
  • Every management executive in an organization should be an emotionally intelligent person.

5.4   CONCLUSION

The main objective of this research was to examine the impact of emotional intelligence on employee performance in multinational company, in addressing this objective, Daewoo Engineering and Construction was chosen as the case study. In an effort to investigate the main objective of the research, five hypotheses were formulated employee performance was identified as the dependent variable; and emotional intelligence with its components as the independent variables.

The result of the hypotheses through correlation analysis revealed that there is positive significant relationship between emotional intelligence, it components and employee performance. These findings support the works of Kulkanni et al (2009), Rahim (2010), and Shahzad et al (2011).

After a review of the literature on emotional intelligence and employee performance in Nigeria, little or no reference to this research context could be found. This research therefore adds a new dimension to emotional intelligence and employee performance, as this research takes places in a multinational company in Nigeria. This research further contributes to the arrays of findings resulting to the relevance of the concepts. The findings generally demonstrate the relevance of these concepts in Nigeria context.

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7 thoughts on “The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Employee Performance

  1. very very informative for me. i find the way to conduct my thesis mam i ll be really great full to you email me your designed questionnaires

    Like

  2. this is one interesting topic and i would love to take this topic as my project paper. would it be possible if you could share with me the designated questionnaires for all the variables ?

    Like

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