by Kingdom Emmanuel
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
Faculty of Social Science Niger Delta University
This research work was design to determine the effect of Governance and rural development in Yenagoa Local Government area in Bayelsa state: A case study in a Epie clan. The instrument used for the study was a questionnaire which was designed by the researcher to elicit responses from selected respondents. During the process of data collection, 150 copies of questionnaire were administered. Based on the findings of the study; recommendations were made to improve rural development in Yenagoa Local Government area of Bayelsa state. The major findings from the data analysis was that the assessment on the relationship between governance and rural shows that there is a great deal of relationship between governance rural development, but government function on rural development were poor. Secondly, the study further revealed that corrupt leadership in the local government area was the main constrain to rural development in yenagoa local government area of Bayelsa State. Third, provision of infrastructure and reduction of corruption in local government system were suggested as solutions to rural development. from the findings of the study, recommendations were made which include Increasing government function in rural development, Provision of Infrastructure, Local Finances, and awareness Campaign on rural development, Economic Empowerment, creation of job opportunities and provision of loan scheme for farmers, and monitoring term be set up to know its sustainability
1.1 Background of the Study
Many organisations across the globe are put in place for the survival and well being of the teeming population .The structural frame work of any administrative setting is also designed to meet the needs of the population .To creep out of the shackles of domination of one group against the other, government was instituted to protect and provide for the citizenry of the various nations.
Edet M. Abasiekong (2010) in his book changing faces of rural Nigeria ,posited that after many years of political independence, neither the physical map of the rural areas nor the living conditions of the rural population in most of the third world countries has changed significantly.
In most cases rural areas in the third world countries have been characterized by poor health, inadequate public and private provision for hygiene and medical care, insufficient communication, transport, and educational facilities.
Consequently, the rural masses have not been able to adequately contribute to rural national development of their country; neither have any been able to enjoy the benefits arising from national growth.
As a result of the many years of neglect, rural areas in most of the third world countries have become a spawning ground for all forms of insurgency, political insurrection, sanctuary for guerrilla warfare and other forms of anti government activities. The neglect also led to the calcification of the rural people’s negatives attitude towards the government and frequent bouts of unrest and rebellion. Edet M. Abasiekong (2010)
However, over the last three decades government of developing countries have come to realize that economic and social progress will continue to elude them if their rural areas were not brought in to the mainstream of their country. They have equally come to realize that rural people’s attitudes towards government must change in order for the national government of less developed countries to attain a relative degree of political stability.
In Nigeria for example, over the years government at various levels have embarked on various development programmes/projects all aimed at bridging rural –urban gap and changing the face of rural Nigeria. Such project include construction of rural roads, provision of bore holes, rural electrification, rural health care services etc .Different governments have come and gone, and still no impact of development has being witnessed in the rural areas .This glaring problems and the stagnancy faced by the rural areas has spurned the researcher of this work, to research and write on this topic, thereby given the academic environment the lances to examine this issue.
This research work intends to expose the issues of governance and rural development in Epie clan of yenagoa local government areas of Bayelsa state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
According to Yusuf 2000 and Iro 2008 about 70 percent of African’s poor’s are rural, and Nigerian population is predominantly rural with rural communities dwellers making up 70 percent of the total population. In Nigeria recent estimate by the world bank indicate that over 45 percent of the country population live below the poverty line, while about two third of this group are extremely poor. (UNDP 1990).Aigbokhan (2000) found out that an increasing number of Nigerians are living in absolute poverty.
Development of the rural areas is a veritable tool for a nation’s progress or growth; since 70 percents of the population are rural dwellers, but in Bayelsa state must of the rural areas are characterized by poor communication, bad roads, lack of health care, no electricity, no potable water, etc.
The neglect of these rural areas has led to militancy, rural people developing negative attitude towards the government, social unrest and rebellion. Urban based government had to divert its merge resources to quell riot, insurrection and uprising in the rural areas, high rate of rural urban migration resulting to increase in urban problems such as over population, accommodation problems, crime, environmental pollution etc.
However, inspect of all these attendant problems, there cannot be a problem without solution in this twenty first century, this project therefore, is an attempt to suggest to the perorating rural neglect by the government of Bayelsa state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objectives of this work are the assessment of the level of government neglect of the rural areas in Epie clan or yenagoa local government area and suggest solutions to the problem.
The following are the objectives of this research work:
1. To find out the relationship between governance and rural development.
2. To examine the type of rural development projects undertaken.
3. To examine the levels of rural development programmes and policies of government in the state.
4. To suggestion effective ways of undertaken rural development projects for rural transformation.
1.4 Significance of the Study
It will be pertinent at this junction to point out that there is no study of this nature that does not have a clear importance to the general public. Hence we shall highlight the importance of this research work as follows:
1. This study will provide a resource document to libraries, thereby contributing to the data bank of knowledge,
2. This study will also serve as a strategic frame work, to direct policy makers and ensure effective result to avoid the neglect of the rural areas,
3. Also the study will further help to create an impact of relevance in focus and relevance of rural development, so as to reduce the number migrants leaving the rural areas to the urban centres.
4. The study will contribute to the advancement of human knowledge in the society.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research is basically concerned with governance and rural development in Bayelsa state .Here, the study population is within Epie clan.
Epie is made up of 17 villages namely : Amarata ,Ekeki ,Okaka, Azikoro, yenezue- Epie, kpansia, Yenegue – gene, Biobolo, Opolo , Okutukutu, Etegwe, Edepie, Agudama –Epie, Akenfa, Yenegwe and Igbogene – Epie.
1 .6 Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were designed to guide this study:
1. There is no correlation between governance and rural development.
2. There is no relationship between corruption and rural community underdevelopment.
3. There is no relation between urban migration and rural community underdevelopment in Nigeria
1.7 Definition of Terms
1. Rural Development: According to Obasanjo and Mbogunje (1991) rural development entails a programme of activities directed at increasing the efficiency of rural population such that rural energy is released, output, quality of life and productivity are enhanced.
2. Development: The gradual growth of something that can become more, advanced and stronger for sustainable livelihood.
3. EPIE: A clan under Yenagoa local government area in Bayelsa state within the state.
4. Programmes: A series of plan and action for development of something
5. Metropolis: A very large city, which is the most important city in a country or an area.
6. Rural: According to the historical and contemporary definition of rural, the concept rural refers to an area of low population density, small absolute size and relative isolation, where the major economic base is agricultural production and the way of life of the people is considerably homogenous and different from that of other sector of the society, notably the city.
7. Governance: According to the third edition of Webster’s dictionary (1986) defined governances as an act or process of governing, specifically authoritative direction and control.
According to scholars working with international development and Donor agencies, governance is defined as the conscious management of regime structure with a view to enhance the public realm.
The following research questions are postulated to the study:
a. What is your opinions on governance rural development
b. What are the constraints of rural development
c. Which of the following projects is in your community?
d. Which of the following agency provided the project?
e. What suggestions can you give towards the development of the rural area?
Literature review is a brief summary of scholars or writers, who are specialized in the field or have relevant information or related issues. It provides evidence that the researcher is familiar with what is already known and what is still unknown and proven, following the expo- factor survey.
2.1 The Concept of Rural Development
The term rural means a word relating to country areas as opposed to large towns (B.B.C English Dictionary).Also according to the historical and contemporary definition, the term rural refers to as an area of low population density ,small absolute size and relative isolation ,where the major economic base is agricultural production and where the way of life of the people is considerably homogenous and different from other sector of the society ,notably the city. Edet M.Abasiekong (2013)
Generally, development is seen as process by which man increases or maximizes his control and use of the material resources with which nature has endowed him and his environment. Afigbo (1991) affirmed that development consists of five main ingredients: increasing material wealth for the use of individuals and the modern collectivity known as the nation; eliminating unemployment; eliminating poverty and want; eliminating inequality, and increasing the general availability of labour-saving devices. Development, from its inception, is a kind of totalistic movement and rural development is not an exception. Therefore, rural development is a multi-dimensional process by which the productivity, income and welfare, in terms of health, nutrition, education and other features of satisfactory life of rural people can be improved upon or transformed. According to Igbokwe and Ajala (1995), the earliest attempt at rural development during the colonial era took the form of community development, and later agricultural extension. The community development approach emphasized self-help to improve health, nutrition and community welfare, whereas the agricultural extension approach was concerned with improving the agricultural productivity. The goal of both programmes ultimately was to produce primary products for the feeding of European industries.
2.2 History of Rural Development
Rural development started as a concert policy of sectoral development. Rural development had its origin in the united state of America in 1908, In the United States of America. The rural areas lagged behind the urban areas as a result of acute depression in the American agricultural economy at the beginning of the (20th) century. The southern part of united state was economically prostrate and socially paralyzed, other factors like mechanization and specialization on agriculture, rapid technological development and the failures of institution to adjust adequately to this changes also contributed .
The condition in rural America was so bad that sir horise plunketh had to set up what was known as the country life commission to study the prevailing conditions and make recommendations to the president, Theodore Roosevelt on what could be done to improves the social and economic life in rural America. This commission published its report in 1912 and series of legislation followed thereafter, all aimed at the betterment of the rural areas. The month of May mark the setting up of the country life commission, as the beginning of federal government concern for rural development in the united state of America.
Later other nations of the world followed the process of progress (Ekong.E.Ekong, inaugural lecture1995:5)
2.3 History of Rural Development in Nigeria
The early years of Nigeria’s independence witnessed colossal concentration of development efforts on the modern sector of the economy to the exclusion of investment in the rural economic base. Therefore, the problem has been how to make rural development sustainable. Towards this end, a number of development approaches have been pursued by the various governments in Nigeria. These consist mainly in the establishment of projects, programmes, and capacity-building institutions. One shortcoming of these efforts is the limited local community participation in problem identification, project prioritization, design, preparation and implementation. Suffice it to state that most of these development approaches are elitist and urban-biased, such that the rural areas are often given lip attention in virtually all ramifications of modernization process. The rural sector is still largely characterized by absence of basic human needs and underdevelopment in agricultural and non-agricultural activities (Williams, 1994). In line with the fore-going, Diejomaoh in Ayichi (1995) asserted that rural development is a process of not only increasing the level of per capita income in the rural areas but also the standard of living of the rural population measured by food and nutrition level, health, education, housing, recreation and security. It is therefore the process of rural modernization and the monetization of the rural society leading to its transition from traditional isolation to integration with the national economy.
Rural Development is part of general development that embraces a large segment of those in great need in the rural sector. Hunter (1964) was among the earliest to use the expression Rural Development which he considered as the “starting point of development” characterized by subsistence. World Bank in Ekpo and Olaniyi (1995) defined rural development as a process through which rural poverty is alleviated by sustained increases in the productivity and incomes of low-income rural dwellers and households. This definition is defective as it dwelt majorly on the economic growth, which is just an aspect of development. Taking into cognizance, the economic growth and social upliftment as aspects of development, Ijere (1990) regarded rural development, as the process of increasing the per capita income and the quality of life of the rural dweller to enable him become prime mover of his own destiny. Obinne in Ogidefa (2010) perceived rural development to involve creating and widening opportunities for (rural) individuals to realize full potential through education and share in decision and action which affect their lives. He also viewed it as efforts to increase rural output and create employment opportunities and root out fundamental (or extreme) cases of poverty, diseases and ignorance.
Therefore, combining all the essential elements of development, Rural Development can be described as the integrated approach to food production as well as physical, social and institutional infrastructural provisions with an ultimate goal of bringing about both quantitative and qualitative changes which result in improved living standard of the rural population. It therefore, infers that agricultural production (development) is a component of rural development as more than two-third of Nigeria’s 150 million citizens are farmers. They live in an estimated 97,000 rural communities. Their lives are characterized by misery, poverty, morbidity and under-development (Ekpo & Olaniyi, 1995). Hence, it has been widely recognized that the rural areas and people are characterized by the following: general poverty trap, low income and investment ratchet, underutilized and/or unutilized natural resources, rapidly increasing population, under-employment and/or disguised employment, low productivity, especially of labour, low and traditional technology, limited enterprise or entrepreneurship, high level of illiteracy, ignorance, disease and malnutrition, near absence of social and physical infrastructures (like all-season roads, potable water, electricity, good schools, health centres, etc.), and political powerlessness, gullibility and level of general vulnerability (Lele & Adu-Nyako, 1991: 1 – 29).
Rural development has scope that is broad and elastic, and it depends on the interaction of many forces such as the objectives of the programme, the availability of resources for planning and implementation, etc. In developing countries, such as Nigeria, rural development projects will include agricultural set-up projects, rural water supply projects, rural electrification projects, rural feeder-road and maintenance projects, rural health and disease control projects, rural education and Adult education campaign, rural telecommunication system, and rural industrialization.
There has been a lot of rhetoric about the pattern of life and living in the rural areas. The rhetoric ranges from romanticized account of pastoral beauty at the serenity of living found in rural areas. To this, Nigeria is not an exception. There has been a lot of misunderstanding about what rural development is. The services and misunderstanding about rural areas is evident in the various governmental programmes that have been tossed around. The expectations of government in rural development Nigeria are viewed from two perspectives:
i. Pre-independence Experience
ii. Post-Independence Experience
A. Pre-Independence Experience in Rural Development
During the colonial era, roads and railway lines were constructed up and across the country, in the name of and ostensibly for the development of rural areas. Perhaps, they were done to open up the hinterland for civilization. However, the real reason for such constructions was to enable the colonialists and the imperialists to tap and evacuate our agricultural products such as groundnuts, cocoa, cotton, and palm produce. In the rural areas within this era, agricultural mechanization was introduced to increase the hectares of food production for export; and also for the maximization and exploitation of the rural areas. The objective of the development of the rural areas during this period is secondary and not of primary objective. Though most appropriate, the colonial administration did not use the village, town and clan unions for purposes of rural development because of fear that they might constitute hotbeds of political propaganda. Rather, they became useful in tax collections and rallies on Empire Days.
B. Post-Independence Experience in Rural Development
After independence, the rhetoric and lip service were even thicker. This time, indigenous politicians and bureaucrats do it and many of who were themselves emigrates from rural areas. The period witnessed colossal concentration of development efforts on the modern sector of the economy to the exclusion of investment in the rural economic base. Government intervention in rural transformation then were in response to lifting urban pressures emanating from rural neglect and improving export commodity earnings (Igbokwe & Ajala, 1995). They now cart away the nation’s wealth for personal savings abroad for security. They started their attack on rural development through the institution of marketing and commodity board. The aim of the marketing board was to help the farmers sell their produce in the world market to the advantage of the farmers, and also to cushion the effects of price fall in the world market. It is now known that not only were the farmers grossly underpaid from their labour, but even the money got from their taxes and levies which supposed to be reserved to cushion the price effects were diverted into other uses. Example of such diversion was the construction of prestigious projects like the Cocoa House at Ibadan. In such way, the exploitative attitudes of the urban elites towards the rural areas continued unabated. The consequences of all these are hunger and famine that have hunted our country forcing the government to import all the foodstuffs that we needed. So, it became more profitable and more sensible to remain in cities even as unemployed than to be enslaved in the rural areas just to feed the nation.
In the 1970s, there was a renewed effort in what was called rural development. The main idea was actually a desperate effort to ensure adequate food supply for the nation, especially for the parasitic urbanites. The efforts really served the needs of the cities through which the best and the choicest food produced were carted away by the middle men who had bought them at ridiculously low prices from the original producers. The policy was in practice, and implementation was exploitative and impoverished to the rural areas because they were aimed at enhancement of food and crop production only. Billions of Naira has been spent on rural development projects, yet the conditions of the rural inhabitants continued to be poorer, abject and pitiable or miserable. This is because the projects were not aimed at developing the rural people, and where they happened to contribute to the development, such contributions were secondary and distant. However, Government of various regimes employed some strategies aimed at developing the rural areas in Nigeria. Some of the tried strategies are:
1. The National Accelerated Food Production Project (NAFPP). This project was launched in 1973 and it continued until 1976 when it was replaced by the Operation Feed the Nation Programme. It was an impact-making agricultural strategy to increase food production in specific areas and sub-sectors of the agricultural economy. NAFPP relied heavily on the cooperative approach as well as on technical assistance for its success. The scheme was a well-conceived and guided change programme for rural development, especially in the area of food production.
2. Operation Feed the Nation. This programme was launched in 1976 by the then Head of State of Nigeria. Lt. Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo. It was designed to awaken in the generality of Nigerians the advantages of the agricultural occupation, especially, those living in the rural areas. The objectives of the Operation Feed the Nation were as follows:
i. to mobilize the nation towards self-sufficiency and self-reliance in food production.
ii. to encourage the sector of the community relying heavily on food purchase to grow their own food.
3. to encourage general pride in agriculture.
iv. to encourage balanced nutritional feeding and thereby produce a healthy nation.
The Operation Feed the Nation was not specifically a rural development strategy, but the rural areas benefited through inputs and professional advice. However, Osuntogun and Olufokunbi (1986) observed that the Operation Feed the Nation rather than solving food problems created opportunities for the ruling class to appropriate national funds. They were appointed Board members as well as given fat contracts.
3. The Agricultural Development Projects (ADP). The projects commenced in Nigeria in 1975. The World Bank, the Federal and State Governments jointly own them. The ultimate objective of the Agricultural Development Projects system was to raise productivity, increase farm output, income and standard of living of the rural people. The emphasis was on the promotion of small-scale autonomous projects operated by a multi-disciplinary management unit. Using the cooperative approach, they tackled many aspects of agriculture, which include production, marketing, infrastructure and training. The problem with the Agricultural Development Projects was that they used a mixture of settlement and big-push approaches. As such, their heavy capitalization prevented their adoption by government and organizations.
4. The River-Basin Development Authority (RBDA). It was first launched in 1962, expanded in 1976 and further expanded in 1983. However, it was revised and curtailed between 1984 and 1986. The declared aim of the authority was to make the nation self-sufficient in food production and to uplift the socio-economic standard of the rural dwellers. Accordingly, Federal Republic of Nigeria (1981) reported that government provided in the Third National Development Plan huge sum of money to develop the main rivers of the country to benefit agriculture and rural development. However, the activities of the authority showed that the development philosophy was still the trickle-down approach as rural development was not a serious issue in the objectives of the River-Basin Development Authority, which included:
i. to undertake comprehensive development, both surface and underground water resources for multi-purpose use.
ii. To undertake scheme for the control of flood, and erosion, and for the water-shed management including afforestation.
iii. To construct and maintain dams, dykes, wells, bore-holes, irrigations and drainage systems.
iv. To provide water from reservoir and lakes for irrigation purposes to farmers and recognized associations, as well as for urban water supply scheme.
V. To control pollution in rivers, lakes, lagoons, and creeks.
All the activities of the authorities were geared at the development of material things, objects and gadgets, and not at the development of the people as persons. The activities were only done for the people, not with the people and by the people. Also, the impact of the RBAs was limited due to conflicting policy changes and lack of management know-how. According to Okorie and Umezurike (1990), the RBDAs diverted from their traditional roles to that of food production. Moreover, the increasing cost of running them due to huge capital investment led to several policy adjustments.
5. Green Revolution. It is a crash programme launched in i980 by Alhaji Shehu Shagari’s Administration. It was aimed at boasting food production in a bid to provide food to every Nigerian. The objectives of Green Revolution include:
• to make the country self-sufficient in food production within 5 years.
• to return the country to its pre-eminent crop production stage within 7 years.
Unfortunately, it failed because the same government that instituted Green Revolution with the aim of making Nigeria self-sufficient as at 1985 embarked on a large-scale importation of rice from India and America, and essential food items for survival and sustenance (Otoghagua, 1999). Again, the sole intention of the programme was food and crop production so that the physical hunger of urban areas and the impoverished foreign exchange account of the government might be replenished. The presumption was that once agriculture was improved, and the yields per acre were increased, the peasant farmers who constitute the major bulk of the producers would automatically have their economic and social standard improved. It is very clear that there was no mention of how to channel the money back, extracted from the rural areas to develop the area.
6. Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI). The directorate was one of the numerous programmes that were instituted by the then President of Nigeria, Gen. Ibrahim Badamosu Babangida in 1985. It was a kind of home-grown social dimensions of Adjustment project for Nigeria. According to Ekpo and Olaniyi (1995), DFRRI has the following objectives:
i. to improve the quality of life and standard of living of the majority of the people in the rural areas by:
• improving greatly the quality, value and nutritional balance of their food intake;
• raising the quality of rural housing, as well as the general living and working environment in the rural areas;
• improving the health condition of the rural people;
• creating greater opportunities for human development and employment; especially self-employment and invariably enhancing rural income levels;
• making it possible to have a progressively wider range and variety of goods and services to be produced and consumed by the rural people themselves as well as for exchange;
ii. To utilize the enormous resources of the rural areas to lay a solid foundation for the security, socio-cultural, political and economic growth and development activities of the rural areas;
iii. To ensure a deeply-rooted self-sustaining development process based on effectively mobilized mass participation, beginning from the grass roots and spreading thereafter to the wider economy (p. 138).
The Nigeria’s DFRRI can be perceived as a kind of integrated rural development strategy. Its activities can be grouped into the following broad areas: Provision of Economic and Social Infrastructures, Production of Agricultural Inputs, Development and Dissemination of Improved Technology to enhance agricultural and rural housing and Mobilization for Mass Participation in rural development.
a. Provision of Economic and Social Infrastructures: DFRRI developed rural access roads. Government surveys indicated that 60, 000km of rural feeder roads were either constructed or rehabilitated under the first phase which was completed in 1987. In 1990, a total of 30,724.34km of rural feeder roads were completed and accepted as having met the required specifications under the second phase of the project. Another 55,576.24km of rural roads was constructed in 1991. However, in 1992, a total of 85,592.82km of rural feeder roads were completed, inspected and accepted. Another important infrastructure on which DFRRl’s resources were concentrated was rural electrification. The first phase took off in 1987. Two model villages in each local government area of the country were selected for the project so as to serve as reference points in rural development in the country. By 1989, 142 electricity projects were completed in phase 1. In 1990, 114 communities in 11 states were provided with electricity. In 1991, 325 communities were supplied with electricity, and another 506 communities benefited in 1992. Also, on water supply to rural communities, 4, 000 wells/boreholes were reported to have been sunk by 1989. Another I, 291; 11, 310 and 18, 680 wells and boreholes were sunk in 1990, 1991 and 1992, respectively (Ekpo & Olaniyi, 1995).
7 The Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC)
The Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) has been in operation since 2000 and has been involved in both urban and rural development in the oil producing states ( Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa ,Cross River, Delta, Edo ,Imo, Ondo and Rivers) the rural areas have benefited in terms of
A. primary and secondary school classrooms,
B. electric generator and generator houses
C. potable water supply
D. roads linking several villages
E. small buses for transportation
F. boat for water transportation
G. pilling of water fronts
H. cassava plantation
I. landing jetties
These have also provided employment opportunities in the rural economy and made the beneficiary contractor to build private houses, schools and estates in their villages and rural towns.
2.4 Various Approaches to Rural Development
The overall aim of rural development efforts is geared towards the improvement of the lives of the rural population. However, several approaches aimed at arresting the ugly under-development situation in rural areas have been put forward. According to Ijere (1990: 52 – 54), they include the following:
1. Growth Pole Centre Model: This model is also known as “Growth Point Model”. The model involves the development of a few strategic towns, communities and industries likely to activate other sectors. The model focuses attention on the development of few towns leading to the neglect of the rural areas.
2. The “Big Push” Policy: This approach is similar to the growth pole centre model except that it is more concentrated. It takes a few sub-sectors and expends most of the resources on them in the hope that in the long run, their multiplier effect will salvage the whole economy. The flaw in this model is that “in the long run” is not a specific period.
3. The Selective Approach: This model/approach involves the selection of certain sectors for development based on economic, political, social or religious grounds, which may not necessarily be related or inter-connected.
4. The Protectionist Approach: In this approach, the government carries out the development pro cess on behalf of the people believing that it knows everything and that the people are not yet ripe to participate, in the management of their own affairs.
5. The Top-down Approach: It is also called the Top-bottom approach. It is a strategy based on passing down to the poor certain policies and directives from the governing bureaucracy. This type of rural development approach requires force to maintain and sustain it.
6. The Decentralized Territorial Approach: This approach centres on the dispersal of benefits to the rural area. It has minimum linkage with the city but with settlements of various sizes to act as service and market centres. The defect in this approach is the undue fear of towns being exploitative and parasitic, and the consideration that size alone could determine the performance of a settlement.
7. The “Laissez-faire” Policy: In this model, the authorities use the role of thumb, past experience, hind-sight and the free market mechanism to manage the economy, with the hope that the invisible hand of God would ensure optimum happiness for everybody.
8. The Key Settlement Strategy: This model is closely related to growth pole centre model except that its focus is on settlement. It assumes a focal point for a given rural area, and the concentration of all rural development resources in such a settlement. This in turn will serve other regions through its network of roads and communication. This model requires a long time to mature, and therefore it is more expensive.
9. The Adaptive Approach: It is a combination of selective approach and Laissez-faire policy and any other approach. It gives the people the opportunity to decide on their own lives, sometimes, under the guidance of the government.
10. The “Bottom-Up” Approach: It is also called Bottom-top approach or Rurism. Rurism is a coherent national and social-value system in which human and material resources are mobilized and allocated from the lower echelon of the economic and social strata to the top. It is free from any foreign ideology and infection. It promotes self-reliance, self-consciousness into balanced development of human and material resources. It is the ideal approach.
2.5 Theoretical Framework
This research work combines the functionalist and political economy theories as a point of departure in unravelling the relationship between governance and rural development.
The functionalist views society as a social system which has parts or units that are interrelated and interdependent. The functionalist also attempts to relate the different component of system to the whole Ekpeygong(2010).They argued that there is a cohesiveness in the system which hold the parts together , so that there is order ,stability ,and equilibrium in the system .
The different parts of the social system relate to each other, and the parts or element are called the institutions of society which consist of the family, religion, economy, polity and education. Functionalist attempt to identify the social function of the various institution of the society, for example, the family performed reproductive function and transmit social values, polity on the other hand politics is about governance which has to do with maintaining social order. If any of the interrelate part is disrupted by social change, it will affect other unites and the system as a whole.
From the above theory, it implies that if the government fails to render developmental functions toward the development of the rural area or if the rural areas are underdeveloped, it will affect every sector of the society. This is because 70% of the population dwells and earns their living in the rural areas, when rural areas are neglected or underdeveloped, it will result in a high rate of rural urban migration which will further result to more urban problem such as crime, pollution, and accommodation problem etc.
The Political Economy Theory: Marx (1970) holds that in a social production men enter into definite relation which are independent of their will .These are relations of production that are appropriate to a given stage in their development of material force of production. The totality of these relations of production is seen to constitute the economic structure of society which is the real foundation on which arises the legal and political superstructure and corresponds definite forms of social consciousness. It is therefore obvious in the political and economic parlance, that political and economic structure of any modern society determine its general values, cultures and norm as well as even the direction of practice of governance. The changing nature of the culture, norms and values of African societies with a particular reference to Nigeria is alarming .The prevailing culture, values and the norms of the different strata of any society are dictated by the prevailing political and economic structure and the direction, practice and quality of governance.
The moral decadence level among the citizenry even in the rural area is alarming. In the whole south –south zone of Nigeria, there is a near collapse of social order .The norms and the values of the people are at variance with that of the leadership. Gbemudu (2008) reported that 80% of Bayelsa youth are unemployed, it is unfortunate that some of these poverty stricken youths have decided to turn the society upside down by capturing foreign oil workers and asking for outrageous amount for their release .from the above; It is obvious to called for urgent attention of the various levels of government and corporate organisations that the development of the rural areas is important in order to restore social order and sanity in the society.
In this chapter, we will discuss the methodology of the study which include the research design, population of study, sampling techniques, sampling size, method of data collection, and method of data analysis.
3.1 Sample design
Considering the purpose of this research, the design of the study is a cross- sectional design and a co relational research design. The cross sectional design is the best suited for collecting information from a cross section of the study population. The cross sectional survey also tries to get an over view of all subjects of the total population on their perception at a given time.
The purpose of correlation research on the other hand is to determine whether a relationship exists between two or more variables, and to the extent of the relationship that exists between two or more variables. An attempt was made to examine the relationship between governance and rural development in Yenagoa Local Government area of Bayelsa state. We adopted this research design because it allowed for measurement of a number of variables and their relationships. Again, in this design, information explaining the degree of relationship between variables under study were given or indicated. Thurs it enabled the researcher to make predictions and even estimate the probable and accuracy of such prediction.
3.2 Research locale: This research is conducted in Yenagoa local government area of Bayelsa state. Yenagoa local government area has 17 villages, namely: Amarata, Ekeki, Okaka, Azikoro, yenezue-Epie ,kpansia, Yenezue-gene, biogolo,Opolo, Okutukutu, Etegwe, Edepie, Igbogene, yenagwe. Akenfa Epie, Agudame Epie, Opolo, Yenagwe Epie.
3.3 Population of study
The population of the study is consisted of 17 villages. The 17 villages are Amarata, Ekeki, Okaka, Azikoro, yenezue-Epie ,kpansia, Yenezue-gene, biogolo,Opolo, Okutukutu, Etegwe, Edepie, Igbogene, yenagwe. Akenfa Epie, Agudame Epie, Opolo, Epie.
. The population comprises of young people between the ages of 18 and above,
3.4 Sample population: the sample size is made up of 150 peoples on the whole. The 150 persons were also randomly selected from the 17 villages.
3.5 Sample Techniques: the study adopted the stratify random sample techniques, it is a method whereby the total population is divided in to a smaller group known as strata on the basis of relevant criteria such as economic backwardness, infrastructural development, religion etc. Questionnaires were distributed according to the criteria of age. The major reason for using stratified sample is to ensure adequate representation and accuracy in the sample.
3.6Method of data collection
The study used questionnaire as the primary instrument of data collection. These methods were used because it is more useful than any other method of data collection use to obtain information. The questionnaire contained two basic sections; the first section contained the demographic characteristic of the respondents such as sex, age, marital status and educational qualification, whereas the second section contained the substantive part of study. The questionnaire was self administered and it contained close and open ended questions .The researcher supervised the entirety of the questionnaire administration and collection.
3.7 Method of Data Analysis
The data for this study were obtained from administered questionnaires, and some of which were pre-coded, while the data analysis techniques applied in the study is chi-square techniques a statistical method for verifying the relationship between the independence and dependent variable of the study
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In this chapter is focused towards the discussion of the findings with the conclusion/summary of findings, limitation of the study, and suggestion for further research.
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDS
This study was carried out with the major aim of finding out the possible solutions to the upliftment of the living standard of those in the rural area or grassroots level in the country. In this direction special consideration was placed in Yenagoa Local Government area of Bayelsa State.
The concern of the rural population is what motive the government to bring administration closer to the people at the local level, the essence was that underdeveloped rural areas affect and retard the growth rate of the nation.
Consequently, from the inception of the local government system changes have been taking place, all is to situate the rural areas in their proper perspective. There have been series of reforms; but till date there are still some lapses, meaning that local government are failing to meet their responsibilities in the development of the rural areas.
From the analysis of the study, the assessment on the relationship between governance and rural shows that there is a great deal of relationship between governance rural development, and government function on rural development was poor. Secondly, the study also revealed that corrupt leadership in the local government area was the main constrain to rural development in yenagoa Local Government area of Bayelsa State
Third, provision of infrastructure and reduction of corruption in local government system were suggested as solutions to rural development.
5.2 CONCLUSIONS/ SUMMARY
This research work was able to examine various literatures in the subtopics, the concept of rural development, history of rural development, history of rural development in Nigeria in the pre- independence experience, and post independence experience in rural development, approaches to rural development. Leaning from the above studies, we find out that the governance process is the causative factor in the underdevelopment and high rate of rural urban migration in this rural area. And this stems from the problem of ineffectiveness and corruption on the part of our leadership, those at the helm of affair
Government should reduce corruption in the system, so that fund allocated for the development of the rural areas will not be stolen by corrupt leaders for their selfish interest.
5.3Limitation of the Study
This research work was faced with a number of constraints. The constraints are inadequate time to collect all relevant data. Another constraint was finance which made the researcher to carry out a sample study of some selected communities for generalization to others within the local government area.
Inspite of these constrains, enough data were collected for the effective conduct and successful completion of the study.
5.4.1, Increasing Governmental Function in Rural Development:
Government should increase its function on rural development like the united state did in the past, by looking deep into the problems of the rural areas and make policies that will change the rural areas positively. Secondly, government should allocate more funds for the development of the rural areas.
Government should also try to reduce corruption in the system, so that fund allocated for the development of the rural areas will not be stolen by corrupt leaders for their selfish interest.
5.3.2 Provision of Infrastructure
Provision of infrastructure and creation of jobs opportunities in the rural areas: Government should construct rural roads, provide pipe born water, establish more health centres, provide electricity in the rural areas and also create job opportunities by setting up industries in those areas, just as it is in the urban centres, these will help to reduce rural urban migrations. The development of the rural areas will attract people to stay in the rural areas thereby reducing rural urban migration, and if rural urban migration is reduced urban population will be less, this will further reduce urban problems like accommodation problem, overcrowding, pollution, crime etc.
The development of the rural areas will also improve agriculture, because agriculture is the main occupation of the rural people, this will in turn increase productivity and provide surplus food to feed the nation thereby reducing hunger and malnutrition. There will also be enough raw materials for industries this is because there will be more able bodied men that now reside in the rural areas instead of staying in the urban centers jobless.
5.4.3 Local Finances
The local government councils should be able to generate revenue internally to complement those from the federal government and state government. It is also suggested that the state should remit ten percent of its internally generated revenue to the local government council.
5.3.4. Awareness Campaign and Educational Enlightenment
It is only an enlightened person that can boldly engage himself in the activities of government; Government should create an enlightenment campaign across board to discuss issues bothering the development of rural areas. The importance of education should be emphasized, and incentives should be introduced to encourage people to be educated.
The government should raise the living standard of the rural people, by reviving most of the markets in the local area, and also create credit schemes or agricultural loan through agricultural development banks in the rural areas to encourage the engagement of majority self- employed people in viable activities.
In conclusion, it is with the provision of necessary amenities and consideration of the above mentioned facts that the people at the rural areas can feel the impact of the government. Thus, we urge the government at all levels to look into these recommendations for effective execution of rural development projects and monitoring term be set up to know its sustainability.
5.5 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
let our leaders be conscious with their principles towards the development of the rural area and have proper focus on rural development, because the rural area are still part of the society, anything that affects the rural areas will definitely affect the other part of the society.
In the case of Epie- clan, quality educational facilities should be provided , creation of employment opportunities , skill acquisition programmes and infrastructural development such as good feeder road ,portable water electrification etc to change the stagnation of the rural area
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